Cosmos 1 was a project by Cosmos Studios and The Planetary Society to test a solar sail in space. As part of the project, an unmanned solar-sail spacecraft named Cosmos 1 was launched into space at 15:46:09 EDT (19:46:09 UTC) on June 21, 2005 from the submarine Borisoglebsk in the Barents Sea. However, a rocket failure prevented the spacecraft from reaching its intended orbit.
Space launch vehicle Volna is a converted Submarine-launched ballistic missile used for launching satellites into orbit. It is based on the R-29R designed by State Rocket Center Makayev and related to the Shtil' Launch Vehicle . The Volna is a 3-stage launch vehicle that uses liquid propellant. The warhead section is used for the payloads that can be either put into orbit with the help of an additional boost engine or travel along a sub-orbital trajectory to be recovered at the landing site. Volna can be launched from Delta III-class submarine or from land based facilities.
The JSC Makeyev Design Bureau is a Russian missile design company located in Miass, Russia. Established in December 1947 as SKB-385, the company is the main designer of submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBM) in Russia. The organization was named in honor of Victor Makeyev. Its full official name is State Rocket Center «Academician V.P. Makeev Design Bureau». In 1965, SKB-385 was redesignated the Design Bureau of Machine-Building (KBM) under the Ministry of General Machine-Building.WIKI