Zond 1c

Overview

Destination: Venus flyby
Mission: Robotic Exploration

Venus flyby 1/5 Baikonur Cosmodrome, Republic of Kazakhstan

Zond 1c was a 3MV-1 series Venus probes that carried a landing capsule. It was left in Earth orbit when the upper stage of the launch vehicle failed.

Molniya 8K78

Family: Molniya
Configuration: 8K78

The Molniya was a modification of the well-known R-7 Semyorka rocket and had four stages. The 8K78 resulted from a crash program by the Korolev Bureau to develop a booster for launching planetary probes. A larger third stage was added along with a fourth stage (Blok L) that was designed to fire in-orbit to send the payload out of LEO. The basic R-7 core was also structurally strengthened and given more powerful engines. A rushed development produced multiple malfunctions of the upper stages, which led to its being replaced by the improved Molniya-M in 1964, but there were enough 8K78s left to continue flying them into 1967.

Specifications
  • Stages
    4
  • Length
    43.44 m
  • Diameter
    3.0 m
  • Fairing Diameter
  • Launch Mass
    305 T
  • Thrust
    813 kN
Family
  • Name
    Molniya 8K78
  • Family
    Molniya
  • Variant
    8K78
  • Alias
  • Full Name
    Molniya 8K78
Payload Capacity
  • Launch Cost
  • Low Earth Orbit
    1900 kg
  • Geostationary Transfer Orbit
  • Direct Geostationary
  • Sun-Synchronous Capacity

Strategic Rocket Forces

Circle Image
Founded: 1959 Successes: 12 Failures: 3 Pending: 0

Agency Type: Government

The Strategic Rocket Forces of the Russian Federation are a separate-troops branch of the Russian Armed Forces that control Russia's land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs).

WIKI

Baikonur Cosmodrome, Republic of Kazakhstan

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