Sigmund Werner Paul Jähn (born 13 February 1937) is a German cosmonaut and pilot, who in 1978 became the first German to fly in space as part of the Soviet Union's Interkosmos programme.
Soyuz 29 was the fourth mission to visit the Salyut 6 space station and carried the the EO-2 expedition, which was the second long-duration crew for the station. The mission began on June 15, 1978, 20:16:45 UTC, launching Commander Vladimir Kovalyonok and Flight Engineer Aleksandr Ivanchenkov into orbit. They docked with the station the next day. During their 136-day stay on the station, EO-2 crew conducted various scientific experiments, performed an EVA and were visited by three uncrewed Progress cargo spacecrafts and two visiting crews, Soyuz 30 and Soyuz 31. EO-2 crew swapped the vehicles with the Soyuz 31 crew, and returned to Earth in Soyuz 31 spacecraft. The mission concluded with a safe landing back on Earth on November 2, 1978, 11:05:00 UTC.Low Earth Orbit
Soyuz 31 was the sixth mission to visit the Salyut 6 space station and carried the the EP-4 crew, which visited the long-duration Soyuz 29 resident crew. The mission began on August 26, 1978, 14:51:30 UTC, launching Commander Valery Bukovsky and Research Cosmonaut/Flight Engineer Sigmund Jähn, the first German cosmonaut, into orbit. They docked with the station the next day. During their stay on the station, crew conducted various scientific experiments. Soyuz 31 crew swapped vehicles with the Soyuz 29 (EO-2 expedition) crew, which allowed for a longer stay in orbit for EO-2. The mission concluded with a safe landing back on Earth on September 3, 1978, 11:40:34 UTC.Low Earth Orbit
The Roscosmos State Corporation for Space Activities, commonly known as Roscosmos, is the governmental body responsible for the space science program of the Russian Federation and general aerospace research. Soyuz has many launch locations the Russian sites are Baikonur, Plesetsk and Vostochny however Ariane also purchases the vehicle and launches it from French Guiana.