Musa Khiramanovich Manarov (Russian: Муса Хираманович Манаров; born March 22, 1951 in Baku, Azerbaijan SSR) is a former cosmonaut who spent 541 days in space. From December 21, 1987 to December 21, 1988 he flew as flight engineer on Soyuz TM-4. The flight duration was 365 days 22 hours 38 minutes. From December 2, 1990 to May 26, 1991 he flew again as a flight engineer on Soyuz TM-11. The duration was 175 days 1 hour 50 minutes, the longest continuous time spent in space by anyone at that time. During his 176-day stay, Manarov observed the Earth and worked in space manufacturing. He also performed 20 hours of spacewalks.
Soyuz TM-4 was the fourth mission to Mir space station. The mission began on December 21, 1987, 11:18:03 UTC, launching Commander Vladimir Titov, Flight Engineer Musa Manarov and Research Cosmonaut Anatoli Levchenko into orbit. They docked with Mir two days later. During their stay there, crew carried out over 2000 various experiments, performed two EVAs. They were visited by Soyuz TM-5 and Soyuz TM-6 crews. Vladimir Levchenko spent only a week on the station, while other two members of the crew stayed for a long duration mission. They returned on a Soyuz TM-6 spacecraft, landing safely back on Earth on December 21, 1988, 09:57:00 UTC.Low Earth Orbit
Soyuz TM-6 was the sixth mission to Mir space station. The mission began on June 7, 1988, 14:03:13 UTC, launching Commander Vladimir Lyakhov, Flight Engineer/Research Doctor Valeri Polyakov and Research Cosmonaut Abdul Mohmand, the first Afghan cosmonaut, into orbit. They docked with Mir two days later, meeting with the long-duration resident crew. During their 7-day stay there, cosmonauts performed Earth observation and other tasks. They returned on a Soyuz TM-5 spacecraft, landing safely back on Earth on September 7, 1988, 00:49:38 UTC.Low Earth Orbit
Soyuz TM-11 was the 11th mission and the eighth long-duration expedition to Mir space station. The mission began on December 2, 1990, 08:13:32 UTC, launching Commander Viktor Afanasyev, Flight Engineer Musa Manarov and Research Cosmonaut Toyohiro Akiyama, the first space tourist, into orbit. They docked with Mir two days later. During their stay there, cosmonauts performed EVAs, various station repair and maintenance tasks, and carried out scientific experiments in biology, geophysics, space technology, astronomy etc. They were visited by several Progress resupply spacecrafts, and welcomed aboard the ninth long-duration expedition crew, which arrived in Soyuz TM-12 vehicle. Toyohiro Akiyama returned on December 10, 1990, in Soyuz TM-10 spacecraft, while the mission itself concluded with a safe landing back on Earth on May 26, 1991, 10:04:13 UTC.Low Earth Orbit
The Roscosmos State Corporation for Space Activities, commonly known as Roscosmos, is the governmental body responsible for the space science program of the Russian Federation and general aerospace research. Soyuz has many launch locations the Russian sites are Baikonur, Plesetsk and Vostochny however Ariane also purchases the vehicle and launches it from French Guiana.