Boris Valentinovich Volynov (Russian: Бори́с Валенти́нович Волы́нов; born 18 December 1934) is a Soviet cosmonaut who flew two space missions of the Soyuz programme: Soyuz 5, and Soyuz 21. He was the first Jewish cosmonaut to enter space, preceding Judith Resnik in the United States.
Soyuz 5 mission started with the launch on January 15, 1969, 07:04:57 UTC, carrying Commander Boris Volynov, Flight Engineer Vladislav Volkov and Research Engineer Pyotr Kolodin into orbit. Two days later mission achieved the first ever docking of two crewed spacecrafts, having Soyuz 5 docked with Soyuz 4 spacecraft. Since no connecting tunel had been developed yet, the two cosmonauts had to spacewalk from one vehicle to another. The mission concluded with a hard landing back on Earth on January 18, 1969, 07:59:12 UTC.Low Earth Orbit
Soyuz 21 was the first crewed mission to the Salyut 5 military space station. The mission began on July 6, 1976, 12:08:45 UTC, launching Commander Boris Volynov and Flight Engineer Vitaly Zholobov into orbit. Spacecraft docked with the station on July 7. During their stay on the station, crew conducted scientific experiments, inculding the first use of Kristall furnace for crystal growth, solar observations and experiments of military nature. The mission was expected to last for 60 days, but emergincies occured on the 42nd day, which included shutdown of several onboard systems, oxygen regeneration system among those. Crew restored functionality of the spaceship, but both Volynov and Zholobov's health was deteriorated, and mission had to end early. The mission concluded after 49 days with a rough landing back on Earth on August 24, 1976, 18:32:17 UTC.Low Earth Orbit
The Roscosmos State Corporation for Space Activities, commonly known as Roscosmos, is the governmental body responsible for the space science program of the Russian Federation and general aerospace research. Soyuz has many launch locations the Russian sites are Baikonur, Plesetsk and Vostochny however Ariane also purchases the vehicle and launches it from French Guiana.